Eleanor Molloy

Eleanor Molloy

Professor of Paediatrics & Child Health, TCD

Eleanor Molloy is the Professor and Chair of Paediatrics at Trinity College Dublin and a Consultant Neonatologist & Paediatrician at the Coombe Women and Infant’s University Hospital, the National Children’s Hospital, Tallaght, and Children’s Health Ireland at Crumlin.

Prof. Molloy’s research group aims to delineate perinatal and early neonatal inflammatory responses in health and disease. They have established longitudinal cohorts of infants with neonatal encephalopathy and preterm infants as well as neonatal controls in order to explore the role of early inflammatory changes and developmental outcomes.

Eleanor Molloy

Professor of Paediatrics & Child Health, TCD

Dr. Lynne Kelly
Position: Research Fellow

Post doctoral researcher in GEMINI and research coordinator of the Paediatrics research lab in TTMI, St James’ Hospital.

Dr. Mary O’ Dea
Position: PhD Researcher

PhD in the Underlying mechanisms in Neonatal Immune metabolic dysregulation and brain Injury.

Dr. Emer Ryan
Position: PhD Researcher

PhD in Paediatric Outcomes and Serum biomarker Panel in acute traumatic brain injury /concussion to severe traumatic brain injury .

Dr. Dean Huggard
Position: PhD Researcher

PhD in Down Syndrome Inflammation and Systemic Multiorgan Outcomes

Dr. Matthew McGovern
Position: PhD Researcher

PhD in Gender and Neonatal Inflammation in preterm outcomes.

Dr. Tim Hurley
Position: PhD Researcher

PhD in Circadian Rhythm Alterations and outcome in neonatal Encephalopathy.

Dr. Saima Aslam
Position: PhD Researcher

PhD in Understanding systemic Inflammation& immunomodulation in neontatal brain injury .

Dr. Murwan Omer
Position: PhD Researcher

PhD in Preterm Infection and Systemic inflammation and neonatal outcomes.

Dr. Niamh Lagan
Position: PhD Researcher

PhD in Down syndrome, neurodevelopment and multiorgan outcomes.

Dr. John Allen
Position: PhD Researcher

PhD in Severe Neurological Impairment and children with medical complexity.

NIMBUS: Neonatal Inflammation and Multiorgan dysfunction and Brain injUry reSearch group

Neonatal brain injury (NBI) has a heterogenous aetiology with a high economic and social burden. Neonatal encephalopathy describes the babies who require resuscitation at birth and have an abnormal neurological examination. It remains difficult to predict their developmental outcome. Enhanced inflammatory responses are seen in affected infants and correlate with outcomes. Multiorgan dysfunction is common with renal, hepatic, cardiac and haematological abnormalities.We aim to correlate these inflammatory responses with clinical, neurodevelopmental and MRI outcomes to establish biomarkers of brain injury in neonates. This research may allow early recognition of brain injury prior to MRI (Day 5-7) so that new therapies as adjuvants to therapeutic hypothermia can be initiated as soon as possible after birth.

UNICORN: Underlying mechanisms in Neonatal Immune metaboliC dysregulatiOn and bRain Injury.

: Persistent systemic inflammation has been implicated in neonatal brain injury and identifying novel inflammatory biomarker combinations will help to determine the aetiology of NE and develop new adjunctive therapies. We have shown that immune cell ROS are produced at abnormally high levels in infants with severe NE and increase over the first week of life despite therapeutic hypothermia (TH) therapy. Babies with NE and age-matched controls will have inflammatory phenotyping in terms of immune cell activation and cytokine production to assess t immune dysregulation. Detailed neuroimaging using MRI/MRS (1.5T & 3.0T) and neurological outcome will be correlated with these results in order to assist with improved prognostic biomarker development. We will examine cellular metabolism and mitochondrial function in samples from infants with NE in comparison to healthy neonates with a view to identifying altered pathways that could be targeted by potential adjunctive therapies.

PROSPER: PaediatRic Outcomes and Serum biomarker Panel in acutE traumatic bRain injury /concussion to severe traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is more common in childhood and adolescence than at any other time of life and is one of the most common causesof neurological morbidity and includes concussion. Post concussion syndrome (PCS) combines clinical, cognitive and behavioral symptoms and occurs in one in sevenschool children sustaining an TBI for three months or longerand is associated with persistent inflammation. At present there are no evidence-based clinical guidelines or accurate early tests to predict PCS in children. We aim to prospectively evaluate novel clinical and biochemical markers neurocognitive function at presentation inthe Emergency department and at 6 weeks in children presenting with TBI.

DISCO: Down syndrome Inflammation and Systemic multiorgan outCOmes

Down syndrome is associated with increased incidence of infections in childhood and other inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and Alzheimers disease have an earlier onset. Modulation of inflammatory signalling during infection may improve developmental outcomes. We will evaluate detailed clinical multiorgan outcomes and correlate with detailed developmental outcomes including audiology, Bayley’s developmental scales (BSID III) and WIPPSI and explore the effects of organ dysfunction on outcome. We will examine pro and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses and evaluate the innate inflammatory cell phenotype and activation of the inflammasome. This research will improve the understanding of the systemic inflammatory response in children with Down Syndrome and the potential for newer adjunctive therapies. In addition these immune markers may assist in prognosis of multi-organ outcomes in children with DS.

CRADLE: Circadian Rhythm Alterations anD outcome in neonatal Encephalopathy

Changes in circadian rhythm are common in many illnesses including neonatal brain injury and neonatal encephalopathy (NE). NE is associated with persistent abnormal systemic inflammatory responses that may be amenable to immunomodulation as an adjunct to therapeutic hypothermia. Alterations in circadian rhythm affect immune function and are associated with changes in melatonin, which has anti-inflammatory properties. Understanding the role of the circadian rhythm in neonatal brain injury and inflammation may lead to simple therapeutic measures such as decreasing the duration duration of light exposure to increase endogenous melatonin production. Therefore, we wish to investigate whether alteration of the circadian rhythm in babies with NE decrease inflammation and improve outcome?

GENIE: GEnder and neonatal Inflammation in prEterm outcomes

From infancy to old age,males have poorer disease outcomes compared to females.Preterm infants display a marked gender dimorphism as regards outcome and mortality especially at the borders of viability.We will explore the role of infection and gender in preterm infants in a large prospective cohort examining sex steroid hormones, infection, inflammation and neonatal multiorgan outcomes including brain injury. We will also translate the immune results to include possible new immunomodulatory therapies exploring the roles of estradiol, testoterone and glucocorticoids.

NEBULA: Understanding systemic InfLAmmation & immunomodulation

Neonatal brain injury has multifactorial etiology and causes significant neurological morbidity such as cerebral palsy. Therapeutic hypothermia is the only treatment available in term infants with neonatal encephalopathy (altered neurological function). Activated leucocytes, infection and persistent inflammation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of brain injury and cerebral palsy. Circadian rhythm plays a key role in innate immune responses and melatonin is an essential regulator. Melatonin has been shown to improve outcomes in combination with hypothermia in animal models of neonatal brain injury. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1 alpha is a key transcriptional factor in the hypoxic response and is associated with persistent inflammation.We will examine circadian Rhythm and HIF-1alpha in neonatal NE and Control samples. This research will improve the understanding of the systemic inflammatory response in infants with brain injury and the potential for therapies such asmelatonin in addition to hypothermia.

PRISM: PReterm Infection and SysteMic inflammation and neonatal outcomes

Despite rapid progress in neonatal intensive care over the past decades, neonatal mortality from sepsis remains unacceptably highand morbidity includes brain injury and developmental delay. Systemic inflammation related to sepsis has been implicated in many common neonatal complications such as brain, lung, or gastrointestinal injuryespecially in preterm infants. Modulation of inflammatory signalling during sepsis may improve survival in preterm infants and prevent related neurodevelopmental complications. This research will improve the understanding of the systemic inflammatory response in preterm infants and the potential for newer adjunctive therapies. In addition these immune markers will assist in prognosis of multi-organ outcomes in preterm infants.

SERENITY: SEveRE Neurological Impairment and children with medical complexiTY

Severe Neurological Impairment (SNI) is a term that has been used to describe a global impairment of the nervous system. This group of children, who have unique challenges, could be considered a sub-group of those with more general medical complexity. However, there is no internationally agreed definition of severe neurological impairment and, therefore, a paucity of literature on its prevalence and medical and social consequences. This information is vital for future resource planning so we can provide the very best care for this vulnerable group of individuals. Objectives 1.To create a consensus definition of SNI 2.To quantify medical complexity in this group 3.To assess wellbeing in the families of children with SNI

The list of publications below is automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed. As a result, there may be incorrect or missing publications.

Bearer CF, Chalak L, Fuentes-Afflick E, Molloy EJ, 2019 Sep 14, The rewards of peer-reviewing. Pediatr Res, DOI: 10.1038/s41390-019-0573-7
Molloy EJ, 2019 Jul 4, Dr Janusz Korczak: paediatrician, children's advocate and hero. Pediatr Res, DOI: 10.1038/s41390-019-0495-4
O'Leary N, Jairaj C, Molloy EJ, McAuliffe FM, Nixon E, O'Keane V, 2019 Jul, Antenatal depression and the impact on infant cognitive, language and motor development at six and twelve months postpartum. Early Hum Dev, DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2019.05.021
Aslam S, Strickland T, Molloy EJ, 2019, Neonatal Encephalopathy: Need for Recognition of Multiple Etiologies for Optimal Management. Front Pediatr, DOI: 10.3389/fped.2019.00142
Molloy EJ, Bearer CF, 2019 Aug, Insights in Pediatric Research. Pediatr Res, DOI: 10.1038/s41390-019-0394-8
Brennan K, O'Leary BD, Mc Laughlin D, Kinlen D, Molloy EJ, Cody D, Paran S, McAuliffe FM, Hogan AE, Doyle SL, 2019 Jul, Nucleic acid cytokine responses in obese children and infants of obese mothers. Cytokine, DOI: 10.1016/j.cyto.2019.03.015
Bearer CF, Molloy EJ, 2019 Jul, Gender bias at Pediatric Research? Pediatr Res, DOI: 10.1038/s41390-018-0246-y
Molloy EJ, Mader S, Modi N, Gale C, 2019 Jan, Parent, child and public involvement in child health research: core value not just an optional extra. Pediatr Res, DOI: 10.1038/s41390-018-0245-z
Geraghty AA, O'Brien EC, Alberdi G, Horan MK, Donnelly J, Larkin E, Segurado R, Mehegan J, Molloy EJ, McAuliffe FM, 2018 Dec, Maternal protein intake during pregnancy is associated with child growth up to 5 years of age, but not through insulin-like growth factor-1: findings from the ROLO study. Br J Nutr, DOI: 10.1017/S0007114518002611
Huggard D, McGrane F, Lagan N, Roche E, Balfe J, Leahy TR, Franklin O, Moreno A, Melo AM, Doherty DG, Molloy EJ, 2018 Nov 3, Altered endotoxin responsiveness in healthy children with Down syndrome. BMC Immunol, DOI: 10.1186/s12865-018-0270-z
McGovern M, Flynn L, Coyne S, Molloy EJ, 2019 Jan, Question 2: Does coagulase negative staphylococcal sepsis cause neurodevelopmental delay in preterm infants? Arch Dis Child, DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2018-316004
Huggard D, Molloy EJ, 2019 Jan, Question 1: Palivizumab for all children with Down syndrome? Arch Dis Child, DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2018-316140
Donnelly JM, Lindsay K, Walsh JM, Horan MK, O'Shea D, Molloy EJ, McAuliffe FM, 2018 Sep 27, Perinatal inflammation and childhood adiposity - a gender effect? J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med, DOI: 10.1080/14767058.2018.1517315
Molloy EJ, Bearer C, 2018 Nov, Neonatal encephalopathy versus Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy. Pediatr Res, DOI: 10.1038/s41390-018-0169-7
Huggard D, Molloy EJ, 2018 Nov, Question 1: Do children with Down syndrome benefit from extra vaccinations? Arch Dis Child, DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2018-315541
Bearer CF, Molloy EJ, 2018 Jul, Pediatric research: brief update on key objectives. Pediatr Res, DOI: 10.1038/s41390-018-0087-8
Molloy EJ, Gale C, Marsh M, Bearer CF, Devane D, Modi N, 2018 Sep, Developing core outcome set for women's, newborn, and child health: the CROWN Initiative. Pediatr Res, DOI: 10.1038/s41390-018-0041-9
Brennan K, O'Leary BD, Mc Laughlin D, Breen EP, Connolly E, Ali N, O'Driscoll DN, Ozaki E, Mahony R, Mulfaul K, Ryan AM, Ni Chianain A, McHugh A, Molloy EJ, Hogan AE, Paran S, McAuliffe FM, Doyle SL, 2018 Aug 15, Type 1 IFN Induction by Cytosolic Nucleic Acid Is Intact in Neonatal Mononuclear Cells, Contrasting Starkly with Neonatal Hyporesponsiveness to TLR Ligation Due to Independence from Endosome-Mediated IRF3 Activation. J Immunol, DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1700956
Quinlan SMM, Rodriguez-Alvarez N, Molloy EJ, Madden SF, Boylan GB, Henshall DC, Jimenez-Mateos EM, 2018 Jul 3, Complex spectrum of phenobarbital effects in a mouse model of neonatal hypoxia-induced seizures. Sci Rep, DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-28044-2
Onwuneme C, Molloy EJ, 2018 Aug, Question 2: Vitamin D intake for preterm infants: how much do they really need? Arch Dis Child, DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2018-315363
O'Driscoll DN, McGovern M, Greene CM, Molloy EJ, 2018 May 11, Gender disparities in preterm neonatal outcomes. Acta Paediatr, DOI: 10.1111/apa.14390
O'Driscoll DN, Greene CM, Molloy EJ, 2017 Nov, Immune function? A missing link in the gender disparity in preterm neonatal outcomes. Expert Rev Clin Immunol, DOI: 10.1080/1744666X.2017.1386555
Molloy EJ, Curstedt T, Halliday HL, Hallman M, Saugstad OD, Speer CP, 2017, Sharing Progress in Neonatal (SPIN) Brain, Gut, Heart, and Lung. Neonatology, DOI: 10.1159/000464316
O'Hare FM, Watson RW, O'Neill A, Segurado R, Sweetman D, Downey P, Mooney E, Murphy J, Donoghue V, Molloy EJ, 2017 Apr, Serial cytokine alterations and abnormal neuroimaging in newborn infants with encephalopathy. Acta Paediatr, DOI: 10.1111/apa.13745
O'Driscoll DN, De Santi C, McKiernan PJ, McEneaney V, Molloy EJ, Greene CM, 2017 May, Expression of X-linked Toll-like receptor 4 signaling genes in female vs. male neonates. Pediatr Res, DOI: 10.1038/pr.2017.2
Sweetman DU, Onwuneme C, Watson WR, Murphy JF, Molloy EJ, 2017, Perinatal Asphyxia and Erythropoietin and VEGF: Serial Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Responses. Neonatology, DOI: 10.1159/000448702
Molloy EJ, Modi N, Greenough A, Lagercrantz H, Bearer CF, Turner M, 2017 Jan, The future of pediatric research: European perspective. Pediatr Res, DOI: 10.1038/pr.2016.225
Omer M, Molloy EJ, 2017 Jan, QUESTION 2: Is permissive hypercapnia beneficial to preterm infants? Arch Dis Child, DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2016-312050
Cowman J, Quinn N, Geoghegan S, Müllers S, Oglesby I, Byrne B, Somers M, Ralph A, Voisin B, Ricco AJ, Molloy EJ, Kenny D, 2016 Oct, Dynamic platelet function on von Willebrand factor is different in preterm neonates and full-term neonates: changes in neonatal platelet function. J Thromb Haemost, DOI: 10.1111/jth.13414
Sweetman DU, Onwuneme C, Watson WR, O'Neill A, Murphy JF, Molloy EJ, 2016 Nov, Renal function and novel urinary biomarkers in infants with neonatal encephalopathy. Acta Paediatr, DOI: 10.1111/apa.13555
Cosgrove P, Molloy EJ, 2016 Sep, QUESTION 2: Is frusemide necessary following red cell transfusion in preterm neonates? Arch Dis Child, DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2016-311620
Onwuneme C, Blanco A, O'Neill A, Watson B, Molloy EJ, 2016 Apr, Vitamin D enhances reactive oxygen intermediates production in phagocytic cells in term and preterm infants. Pediatr Res, DOI: 10.1038/pr.2015.268
Donnelly JM, Lindsay KL, Walsh JM, Horan M, Molloy EJ, McAuliffe FM, 2015 Nov 10, Fetal metabolic influences of neonatal anthropometry and adiposity. BMC Pediatr, DOI: 10.1186/s12887-015-0499-0
Bearer CF, Molloy EJ, 2016 Jan, Expanding research, relevance, and reach. Pediatr Res, DOI: 10.1038/pr.2015.228
Geoghegan S, Nicholson AJ, Molloy EJ, 2015 Jul-Aug, Incorporating Teaching in Global Child Health into Irish Medical School Curriculum. Ir Med J, DOI: 10.1038/pr.2015.228
Onwuneme C, Diya B, Uduma O, McCarthy RA, Murphy N, Kilbane MT, McKenna MJ, Molloy EJ, 2016 Aug, Correction of vitamin D deficiency in a cohort of newborn infants using daily 200 IU vitamin D supplementation. Ir J Med Sci, DOI: 10.1007/s11845-015-1341-2
Onwuneme C, Carroll A, Doherty D, Bruell H, Segurado R, Kilbane M, Murphy N, McKenna MJ, Molloy EJ, 2015 Oct, Inadequate vitamin D levels are associated with culture positive sepsis and poor outcomes in paediatric intensive care. Acta Paediatr, DOI: 10.1111/apa.13090
O'Hare FM, Watson W, O'Neill A, Grant T, Onwuneme C, Donoghue V, Mooney E, Downey P, Murphy J, Twomey A, Molloy EJ, 2015 Jul, Neutrophil and monocyte toll-like receptor 4, CD11b and reactive oxygen intermediates, and neuroimaging outcomes in preterm infants. Pediatr Res, DOI: 10.1038/pr.2015.66
Aslam S, Molloy EJ, 2015, Biomarkers of multiorgan injury in neonatal encephalopathy. Biomark Med, DOI: 10.2217/bmm.14.116
O'Hare FM, Watson RW, O'Neill A, Blanco A, Donoghue V, Molloy EJ, 2016, Persistent systemic monocyte and neutrophil activation in neonatal encephalopathy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med, DOI: 10.3109/14767058.2015.1012060
O'Hare FM, Watson RW, O'Neill A, Blanco A, Donoghue V, Molloy EJ, 2016, Persistent systemic monocyte and neutrophil activation in neonatal encephalopathy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med, DOI: 10.3109/14767058.2014.1000294
Eliwan HO, Watson RW, Aslam S, Regan I, Philbin B, O'Hare FM, O'Neill A, Preston R, Blanco A, Grant T, Nolan B, Smith O, Molloy EJ, 2015 Mar, Neonatal brain injury and systemic inflammation: modulation by activated protein C ex vivo. Clin Exp Immunol, DOI: 10.1111/cei.12453
Geoghegan SF, Vavasseur C, Donoghue V, Molloy EJ, 2014 Jul 22, Easily missed, potentially fatal complication in an extremely preterm infant. BMJ Case Rep, DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2013-201397
Carroll A, Onwuneme C, McKenna MJ, Mayne PD, Molloy EJ, Murphy NP, 2014 Dec, Vitamin D status in Irish children and adolescents: value of fortification and supplementation. Clin Pediatr (Phila), DOI: 10.1177/0009922814541999
Waters A, Jennings K, Fitzpatrick E, Coughlan S, Molloy EJ, De Gascun CF, Hall WW, Knowles SJ, 2014 Mar, Incidence of congenital cytomegalovirus infection in Ireland: implications for screening and diagnosis. J Clin Virol, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2013.12.007
Donnelly JM, Walsh JM, Byrne J, Molloy EJ, McAuliffe FM, 2015 Feb, Impact of maternal diet on neonatal anthropometry: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatr Obes, DOI: 10.1111/j.2047-6310.2013.00216.x
Lutomski JE, Shiely F, Molloy EJ, 2014 Nov, The prevalence of syphilis at childbirth in Ireland: a six-year review. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med, DOI: 10.3109/14767058.2013.876985
Freyne B, Stafford A, Knowles S, Hora AO, Molloy EJ, 2013 Nov, Universal perinatal screening for Treponema pallidum: the role of a dedicated infectious diseases team for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Sex Transm Infect, DOI: 10.1136/sextrans-2013-051185
McCarthy LK, Twomey AR, Molloy EJ, Murphy JF, O'Donnell CP, 2013 Aug, A randomized trial of nasal prong or face mask for respiratory support for preterm newborns. Pediatrics, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-0446
McCarthy LK, Molloy EJ, Twomey AR, Murphy JF, O'Donnell CP, 2013 Jul, A randomized trial of exothermic mattresses for preterm newborns in polyethylene bags. Pediatrics, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-0279
O'Hare FM, William Watson R, Molloy EJ, 2013 Jun, Toll-like receptors in neonatal sepsis. Acta Paediatr, DOI: 10.1111/apa.12201
Sweetman DU, Riordan M, Molloy EJ, 2013 Mar, Management of renal dysfunction following term perinatal hypoxia-ischaemia. Acta Paediatr, DOI: 10.1111/apa.12116
McCarthy RA, McKenna MJ, Oyefeso O, Uduma O, Murray BF, Brady JJ, Kilbane MT, Murphy JF, Twomey A, O' Donnell CP, Murphy NP, Molloy EJ, 2013 Jul 14, Vitamin D nutritional status in preterm infants and response to supplementation. Br J Nutr, DOI: 10.1017/S0007114512004722
Parameshwar M, Ismail AM, Matheson M, Knowles S, Molloy EJ, 2012 Sep, Neonatal meningitis: a diagnostic dilemma. Ir Med J, DOI: 10.1017/S0007114512004722
Sweetman DU, Molloy EJ, 2013 Mar, Biomarkers of acute kidney injury in neonatal encephalopathy. Eur J Pediatr, DOI: 10.1007/s00431-012-1890-6
Clancy N, Onwuneme C, Carroll A, McCarthy R, McKenna MJ, Murphy N, Molloy EJ, 2013 May, Vitamin D and neonatal immune function. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med, DOI: 10.3109/14767058.2012.746304
Kieran EA, Twomey AR, Molloy EJ, Murphy JF, O'Donnell CP, 2012 Nov, Randomized trial of prongs or mask for nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants. Pediatrics, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2011-3548
Molloy EJ, 2012, The decline and fall of the cardiac biomarker: a good indicator of resolution of cardiac dysfunction following perinatal asphyxia. commentary on D.C. Vijlbrief et al.: Cardiac biomarkers as indicators of hemodynamic adaptation during postasphyxial hypothermia treatment (Neonatology 2012;102:243-248). Neonatology, DOI: 10.1159/000341865

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